Comprehension means power of understanding. Practising of comprehension enables one to understand good English. It brings you great happiness and joys of reading. It is a stupendous feat of shear leaming. Comprehension Practice is effective to enrich the vocabulary power and grammatical details. In this way what you can learn, never you forget it again. You may not let yourself get interested anything by reading. but you practice the part you read in comprehending way, you will be overwhelmed by the subject. The passage, so much mintelligible may be easy-going. Comprehension practice checks out an ignoramus’s ignorance. You may be safely through your exam but you will then discover your education defective if your comprehension is defective. If you strive hard enough to learn all you read you will pass with flying colours. Everything depends on your strenuous practice and infallibility.
To test your power of understanding an unseen passage will be given. It may be difficult to think of any good at the first time but you ought not be worried or be afraid of. You must collect yourself boldly and face the challenge. Then you will be comfortable. After conducting your effort over the passage like a traveller travelling an unknown island with inquisitiveness. You will gradually point out all the difficulties and everything which is hard will be before you. Comprehension acknowledges the following guidelines.
- Read the passage as quickly as possible to get the main idea once or more than one time.
- Read further in a little slow manner to grasp the details of the information. A dictionary will help you to understand the unknown words.
- Go through the question from top to bottom and stimulate your thoughts. In order to do so, you find out the relevant part, of the passage. Read it properly and reproduce the answer in your own English candidly. Streams of thoughts will be categorically noted.
- While writing you never try to give an answer in a part of a sentence or in a clause. Full sentences are needed to give your answer commandably.
- Carefully using your own vocabulary and grammatical errors must be avoided.
- After finishing your answer careful scrutiny is required further to asses the standard of your answer.
Reading Comprehension Practice Set
Read the following extract and answer the questions :
A very important discovery was made by the German Chemist Otto Hahn (1879-1968) in 1938. He found that when a neutron enters the nucleus of the atom of the heaviest naturally occurring element, uranium, the nucleus splits nucleus of comparable size, together with the release of a large quantity of energy. This phenomenon is known as nuclear fission. It differs from all previously studied nuclear transformations since in these only relatively small fragments are chipped off the parent nuclei by the agent producing the transformation. This difference in itself would not have given so much importance to nuclear fission were it not for the fact that the occurrence of each fission process is accompanied by the emission of a few more neutrons, the same agent which brought about the original fission. This aspect of the fission process is of tremendous significance. The neutrons released during the fission of a uranium nucleus may themselves cause the fission of other uranium nuclei in the neighbourhood, resulting in the release of more energy in each case. These neutrons may again cause fission of other uranium nuclei and, under favourable conditions, the process may go on in a self-sustaining chain, resulting in the fissioning of the very large number of uranium nuclei present in a sizable chunk of uranium.
The energy released in single fission, though millions of times larger than that in the chemical transformation of a single molecule are nonetheless quite small—less than a million millionth part of one calorie. When, however, all the myriads of nuclei in a sizable chunk of uranium undergo fission, an enormously large quantity of energy is released. When this release is brought about gradually, in a controlled manner, we can use it for various peaceful purposes, such as the generation of electricity or the propulsion of a steamship. However, when this enormous energy release is brought about suddenly, within the millionth part of a second, then we have the ‘nuclear device’ which was exploded in the desert of Rajasthan on 18 May 1974.
Grammar & Vocabulary
(i) Frame Sentence with the following groups of words :
Split into, Chip off, Accompany by, Bring about, Result in.
Ans: Split into — The political party has splitted into two groups.
Chip off — The bit of pebble was chipped off from a large piece of stone. Accompany by — The singer was accompanied at the harmonium by Mr Shovan Lal Sharma.
Bring about — The dipsomania suddenly formed in him has brought about a change in his lifestyle.
Result in — His prolonged mental depression resulted in a massive heart attack.
(ii) Frame sentences of the form :
(a) The same ……………… that
(b) So ………………. as
(c) Scarcely …………….. before
(d) Thought ……………… yet
Ans: (a) This is the same discovery that Otto Hahn made.
(b) The early discoveries are not so vigorous as the present.
(c) People had scarcely taken shelter before the bomb exploded.
(d) Though fission has no life yet will cause the holocaust.
(iii) It differs from all previously studied transformation, since in these only relatively small fragments are chipped off the parent nuclei by the agent producing transformation. [Split the sentence into simple sentences]
Ans: In these only relatively small fragments are chipped off the parent nuclei. This is done by the agent producing transformation. So it differs from all previously studied nuclear transformation.
(iv) When this release is brought about gradually, in controlled manner, we can use it for various peaceful purposes, such as the generation of electricity or the propulsion of a steamship. [Split it into simple sentences]
Ans: This release is brought about gradually in controlled manner. We can then use it for various peaceful purposes. This is used for the generation of electricity or the propulsion of a, steamship.
(v) Use one word for each group of words :
(a) One who deals with chemistry.
(b) The massive part of an atom which is the centre of a revolving electron.
(c) The electrically neutral part of the nucleus of an atom.
(d) Anything directly apprehended by the sense.
(e) Splitting of the nucleus of an atom.
(f) Solid and thick piece cut off a solid whole.
(g) Very great number.
(h) Something invented for a particular intention.
Ans: (a)Chemist (b) Nucleus (c) Neutron (d) Phenomenon (e) Fission (f) Chunk (g) Myriad (h) Device
Short Answer type questions and answers
(i) What is a uranium?
Ans. A uranium is a radioactive element found in nature.
(ii) What is nuclear transformation?
Ans. Nuclear transformation is a process of transforming of one elemental nuclei of atom by bombarding the former with X- particles.
(iii) What is known as nuclear fission?
Ans. The phenomenon by which a neutron enters into the nucleus of the atom of the heaviest naturally occurring element uranium, and the nucleus splits into two fragment nuclei of comparable size together with release of a enormous amount of energy.
(iv) Who discovered nuclear fission?
Ans. A German chemist Otto Hahn discovered nuclear fission.
(v) What is the difference between nuclear fission and nuclear transformation?
Ans. In nuclear transformation only relatively small fragments are chipped off the parent nuclei by the agent producing the transformation. But in nuclear fission the nucleus splits into two fragment nuclei of comparable size together with release of a large quantity of energy. In this occurrence the fission process is accompanied by the emission of a few more neutrons the same agent which brought about the original fission.
(vi) What happens to the effect of the emission of more neutrons in the fission process?
Ans. The neutrons release thus during the fission process from a uranium nucleus may themselves cause the fission of the nuclei in the neighbourhood resulting the release of more energy in each case. This fission may continue under favourable condition in a chain form.
(vii) Which occurrence may be described as a chain reaction?
Ans. In the fission process the neutrons released during the fission of a uranium nucleus may themselves cause the fission of other neighbouring uranium nuclei resulting in the release of more energy in each case under the favourable condition this process may go on continuously in a self-sustaining chain . This is described as a chain reaction.
(viii) What amount of energy is released in a single fission?
Ans. The energy released during a single fission is millions of times than that in the chemical transformation of a single molecule. Still the energy released in a single fission is less than or million millionth part of one calorie.
(ix) When does this process produce enormous heat?
Ans. When the fission is under gone by all the nuclei in a sizable chunk of uranium the amount of heat is enormous.
(x) How is this enormous energy used for various peaceful purposes?
Ans. If this enormous energy released is brought about in a controlled manner gradually it can be used for various peaceful purposes.
(xi) Give two examples of the use of peaceful purposes.
Ans. The generation of electricity and the propulsion of steamship.
(xii) How can we have nuclear explosion? Ans. When the enormous energy released during a fission reaction is brought about suddenly within the million part of a second we can have nuclear explosion.
(xiii) When and where did India explode her first nuclear device?
Ans. India first exploded her nuclear device in the desert of Rajasthan on 18 May, 1974.