Surrogacy Essay for College and School Students

What is means by Surrogacy?

Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman artificially carries and delivers a child for another couple of person. The surrogate mother may be the child’s genetic mother (called traditional surrogacy), or she may be genetically unrelated to the child (called gestational surrogacy). In traditional surrogacy, the child may be conceived via artificial home insemination using fresh or frozen sperm, or maybe impregnated via intrauterine insemination (IUI), or via intracervical insemination (ICI) performed at a health clinic. Gestational surrogacy requires the transfer of a previously created embryo, and for this reason, the process always takes place in a clinical setting.

The parents may arrange a surrogate pregnancy because. of female infertility or other medical factors which make pregnancy or delivery impossible or risky, or because the parents are male by same-sex marriage. The sperm or eggs and embryos may be provided by the commissioning parents. Monetary compensation may or may not be involved in surrogacy arrangements. If the surrogate receives compensation beyond the reimbursement of medical and other reasonable expenses, the arrangement is called commercial surrogacy; otherwise, it is often referred to as altruistic surrogacy.

Historical Background

We can find the root of surrogacy (not artificial), in having another woman to bear a child in ancient times. Babylonian law and custom allowed this practice, and an infertile woman could use the practice to avoid divorce, One well-known example is the Biblical story of Sarah and Abraham, as Sarah offered her Egyptian slave Hagar as a surrogate.

There is another example of surrogacy in the birth of Droupadi’s brother in the Mahabharata. At present times, many developments in medicine, social customs and legal proceedings have paved the way worldwide for modem altruistic and commercial surrogacy.

Types of Surrogacy

Nowadays there are many types of surrogacy :

Traditional Surrogacy (TS): This involves artificially inseminating a surrogate mother with the intended father’s sperm. With this method, the child is genetically related to its father and the surrogate mother.

Traditional Surrogacy & Donor Sperm (TS/DS): A surrogate mother is an artificially inseminated with donor sperm. And the child is genetically related to the sperm donor and the surrogate mother.

Gestational Surrogacy (GS): When the intended mother is unable to carry a baby to its full term, due to hysterectomy, diabetes, cancer, etc., her egg and the intended father’s sperm are used to create an embryo that is transferred into and carried by the surrogate mother. In this process, the child is genetically related to the intended parents while the surrogate mother has no genetic relation.

Gestational Surrogacy & Egg Donation (GS/ED): If there is no intended mother or the intended mother is unable to produce eggs, the surrogate pun mother carries the embryo developed from a donor egg that has been fertilised by sperm from the intended father. With this method, the child is genetically related to the intended father while the surrogate mother has no genetic relation.

Gestational Surrogacy & Donor Sperm (GS/DS): If there is no intended father or the intended father is unable to produce sperm, the surrogate mother carries an embryo developed from the intended mother’s egg (who is unable to carry a pregnancy herself) and donor’s sperm. With this method, the child is genetically related neither to the intended mother and the surrogate mother has no genetic relation.

Gestational Surrogacy & Donor Embryo (GS/DE): If the intended parents are unable to produce either sperm, egg or embryo, the surrogate mother can carry a donated embryo often from other couples who have completed IVF or in-vitro fertilization. The child is genetically related neither to the intended parents nor to the surrogate mother.

Legal Issues

Jurisdictions that permit surrogacy, sometimes offer a way for the intended mother—especially if she is also the genetic mother—to be recognised as the legal mother without going through the process of adoption.

Ethical Issues

Ethical issues that have been raised with regards to surrogacy include some questions, especially, to what extent it is right for society to permit women to make contracts about the use of their bodies.

Religious Issues

Different religions take different approaches to surrogacy, which often relate to their stances on artificial reproductive technology in general.

Psychological Concerns

A study from the Centre for Family Research at the University of Cambridge in 2011 found that surrogacy does not have a negative impact on the surrogate’s own children.