The problem of unemployment in India has become very serious in recent years. The economic well being of the country depends greatly upon the solution to the problem of unemployment. During the present oil crisis even highly advanced countries like Saudi Arabia, England, France, Italy, etc. are also facing the problem of unemployment
In communist countries like Russia, China, etc., the problem of unemployment can be solved easily by employing all the idle population on any available job. In the Constitution of Russia, work is both a right and a duty. It is the responsibility of the state there to provide work to the people. Side by side it is also the duty of the citizens to do some work. It is written in their constitution that he who shall not work, neither shall he cat. There is a move in India also that we should include the right to work in our fundamental right.
Unemployment is a big waste of manpower. It means that while the people are willing to work they have no work to do, It is a sort of forced idleness in the absence of work. Unemployment is one of the most important reasons for India’s poverty and backwardness.
The number of job seekers on the live register of employment exchanges increased from 34.23 lakhs as on 31st December 1969 to 109.24 lakhs as on 31 December 1977. Nearly 3/4th of the persons on the live register of employment exchanges were not classified by occupation. But this figure may also not be a correct estimate regarding the number of unemployed persons, because the employment exchanges cover mainly the urban areas. There are no employment exchanges in the rural areas unemployed in the villages.
In the rural areas also millions of people are either fully unemployed or semi-unemployed. The problem of unemployment is especially acute among the landless workers in the villages, who do not have their own land. Even the farmers in the villages have very small holdings and they remain idle in the offseason for a period from five to seven months every year. It is for this reason that 40% population of India is living below the poverty line. It is again a result of this that there is a tendency among the educated people of the villages to migrate to the cities. They go to the cities in search of employment opportunities.
There are so many causes of unemployment in India such as increasing population, a defective system of education, the backwardness of our agriculture, slow rate of industrialization, etc. Millions of uneducated young man and lakhs of Matriculates, Graduates, Post-Graduates and B.Ed degree well the number of the unemployed in our country annually. Even highly trained personnel like doctors, engineers, teachers and scientists also face the problem of unemployment. The highly trained personnel like doctors, engineers, teachers and scientists instead of starting their own ventures simply run after the Government jobs. Thus, they waste their talent and energy in doing routine jobs. They depend too much upon the Government agencies for providing them with the jobs. They have no ambition to start their own factories, hospitals, schools or laboratories and so independent work.
It is a fact that no one solution can be wholly sufficient for solving the problem of unemployment in our country. First of all, the village and cottage industries in the villages should be developed. If the villages become self-sufficient on their economy, villages would not run to the cities in search of jobs. The system of present education should also be changed radically. Instead of giving only theoretical education, the students should be given vocational training so that they can start some work after they finish their education. The country should also be industrialised at a very fast pace so that more job opportunities can be created for the workers. More and more labour intensive industries and export-oriented industries should be set up to solve the problem of unemployment in India.
Again setting up of agro-industries in the rural areas, like the manufacture of agricultural implements, agriculture-based industries like khandsari, fruit-canning, apple juice etc. can go a very long way in improving the employment situation. It can also improve the economic condition of the villages. The new educational formula popularly known as 10+2+3 is also a right step in the direction of solving the unemployment problem.
Essay No 2 (439 words)
India faces today a number of problems. But the problem of unemployment is the most serious. Of course, the problem has raised its head in almost every country, but that cannot be our consolation. The number of unemployed youths in our country has already reached an alarming proportion, and still, the number is increasing every year. It is really a matter of pity and shame that though willing to work, a large number of our youths find no opportunities for employment.
In fact, unemployment is not only a curse, but it is worse than a disease, It weakens the body and mind and eats up the vitality of our young population. We must admit that every man and woman should have ample scope of employment. It is his or her birthright. But unfortunately, in our country, there are more people than there are jobs. Thousands of young people remain idle even after completing their studies. We should analyse the causes behind such a shameful situation. The most important factor is the alarming growth of population. We see that the population is growing fast but there is no expansion of corresponding avenues of employment. Our system of education is also defective. It is not satisfactorily related to the socio-economic needs of our people. The automation has thrown thousands of people out of their work.
Industrial unrest has also led to lock-outs and lay-offs. And thus, on the whole, the situation is growing worse and gradually slipping out of control. Some of our angry young men turn to be anti-social out of their frustration.
To solve the problem a change of outlook is also needed. No one can deny the bitter and bare fact that no government can provide employment for all the unemployed youths. So we should change our notion of a secure and comfortable job with a chair and a table and a fan in an office or in a bank. Hence our education system should be practice-oriented. Vocational education can offer greater employment opportunities to our youths. It can be a means of a steady supply of skilled hands to different production centres as well as it can provide the scope for self-employment. By reviving cottage and small-scale industries we can also solve the problem of rural unemployment. Above all, we must follow the principles — ‘self-help is the best help’. The answer to unemployment is not more employment offered by the State but more opportunities for self-employment. However, all these will be of no avail unless the population explosion is controlled. Indeed, hunger, distress and unemployment will rule the land unless the birth-rate is reduced to an optimum level.