The State of Meghalaya is situated on the North-East part of India. It was founded on 2 April 1970 within the State of Assam. On 21 January 1972, it was carved out of Assam and was declared as a separate State. The area of Meghalaya is 22,429 sq km and comprises the Garo Hills, the Khasi Hills and the Jaintia Hills as three districts. It has been called the ‘Scotland of East’ for its hilly features. There is a little plain in Garo Hills. Its capital city is Shillong which is situated in the centre of a high plateau. It is a beautiful small town. A lot of visitors choose it as a favourite tourist spot. The neighbouring State of Meghalaya is Assam and the neighbouring country is Bangladesh. The population of Meghalaya is about 30 lakh, and the literacy rate is about 55%.
The rivers flowing in Meghalaya are Samsung, Manda, Daring, Ringge, Carmel, etc. The source of these rivers is the great Himalayas and none of them is navigable. The State is the homeland of three of India’s ancient hill tribes—the Khasis, the Jaintias, and the Garos. The main source of economy of the State is minerals, such as sillimanite, coal, limestone, dolomite, bauxite, mica, quartz, etc.
The climate of the State is of monsoonal type. The average rainfall is much higher than in other parts of India. It remains almost dry in summer.
The natural vegetation is of some agricultural products, such as rice, maize, potato, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton, jute, etc. The major fruits produced in the State are pineapple, orange, banana, etc.
The Legislation in the State is divided into three parts—Assembly, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The number of seats in the Assembly is 60, in Lok Sabha 2 and in Rajya Sabha 1, respectively. The major towns in the State are Shillong (the capital city), Tura, Nougpoh, Nougstoin, Jowai, Bagmara, Mawphlang and Williamnagar.
People of Meghalaya speak in various dialects. But native people speak either in Garo or Khasi language. English is the official language.
No major industries have been set up yet in Meghalaya. Only one cement factory in Nawsubush and one Meter factory in Shillong. The State of Meghalaya needs development in communication, education, trade and commerce and per capita income. Dance, music and sports reflect their way of life.