Delhi, the National Capital Territory of India, is located in, northern India. It is bounded by Haryana to the north, west and south and Uttar Pradesh to the east.
The area around Delhi was probably inhabited before 2000 BC, and there is evidence of continuous inhabitation since at least 6th century BC. The city is believed to be the site of Indraprastha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas in the Indian epic Mahabharata, and the earliest architectural relics date back to the Maurya period (300 BC). Delhi has served as a capital of various kingdoms and empires. It has been captured, ransacked and rebuilt several times, particularly during the Mediaeval Period.
During the British period, Delhi was a part of the province of Punjab and is still historically and culturally connected to Punjab. In 1911, it was announced that the capital of British India was to be transferred from Calcutta to Delhi. The name ‘New Delhi’ was given in 1927, and the new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931. It was officially declared as the Capital of the Union of India after the country gained independence on 15 August 1947.
Delhi features a humid subtropical climate. The hot summer season lasts from March to early June. The monsoon arrives at the end of June and lasts to September. The cold season of winter starts in October, peaks in December and January, decreases in February, and heavy fog often occurs.
According to the 2011 census, the population of Delhi is 16,753,235, and the density of population is 11,297 per km’. It is the world’s second-most populous city, and the largest city in India in terms of area. The sex ratio is 866 female for 1,000 male. And the literacy rate is 86.34%. Hinduism is Delhi’s most popular religion, with approximately 81% of the population. Of course, there are other communities of Muslims, Sikhs, Jains, and Christians. Other minority religions include Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, and Judaism.
After Independence, although technically a federally administered Union Territory, the political administration of the NCT (National Capital Territory) more closely resembles that of a State of India. It has its own High Court and State Ministry headed by a Chief Minister. However, it houses the Supreme Court, the Parliament of India, the Cabinet Ministry and the Rashtrapati Bhavan. It is jointly administered by the Federal Government of India and the local government of Delhi and is the capital of NCT and the whole of the country.
The principal spoken language in Delhi is Hindustani, and Hindi (in Devanagari script) is the principal written form of language. There is a sizable Punjabi and Urdu speaking population, and these two languages have the language status next to Hindi in Delhi.
Delhi’s culture has been influenced by its lengthy history and historic association as the capital of India, This is cited by many significant monuments in the city. The Archaeological Survey of India recognizes 1,200 heritage buildings and 175 monuments as National Heritage sites. In the Old City, the Mughals and Turks constructed several significant buildings, such as the Jama Masjid, India’s largest mosque. Three World Heritage Sites— the Red Fort, Qutab Minar and Humayun’s Tomb—are located in Delhi, Other important monuments include the India Gate, the Jantar Mantar (an 18th-century astronomical observatory built by Sawai Jaisingh) and the Purana Quila (a 16th-century fortress), etc. The Akshardham Temple is the largest Hindu temple complex in the world. The Lotus Temple is a Bahai house of worship completed in 1986, It is notable for its flower-like shape and has become a prominent attraction in the city. This famous temple has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. Raj Ghat and associated memorials are notable for memories of Mahatma Gandhi and other notable personalities.
Delhi is the largest commercial centre in northern India. As of 2013, the per capita income of Delhi is Rs. 2,10,000, highest in India, However, Delhi accounted for the highest percentage of crimes reported in 35 Indian cities with populations of one million or more.
In order to meet the transport demand, the State and Union Government have constructed a mass rapid transit system including the Delhi Metro. Delhi is a major junction in the Indian Railway network and is the headquarters of the Northern Railway. Besides, the Indira Gandhi International Airport is the main gateway for the city’s domestic and international civilian air traffic.
Delhi attracts a lot of tourists—both domestic and foreign—for its historical, political and economic importance and visiting sports and person-abilities, especially being the capital of old, mediaeval and modern India.