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Nicholas I Emperor of Russia

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- Saturday, August 31, 2019
The All-Russian Emperor, Tsar of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland, representative of the Romanov dynasty. Successor of Alexander I, predecessor of Alexander II.

Nicholas Pavlovich Romanov, the future emperor Nicholas I, was born on July 6 (June 25, according to the senior art.) Of 1796 in Tsarskoye Selo. He became the third son of Emperor Paul I and Empress Maria Fedorovna. Nicholas was not the eldest son and therefore did not lay claim to the throne. It was assumed that he would devote himself to a military career. At the age of six months, the boy received the rank of colonel, and at three years old he already flaunted the uniform of the Life Guards of the Horse Regiment.
Nicholas I Emperor of Russia
Responsibility for the education of Nicholas and his younger brother Michael was assigned to General Lamsdorf. Home education consisted in the study of economics, history, geography, jurisprudence, engineering and fortification. Particular emphasis was placed on the study of foreign languages: French, German and Latin. The humanities did not deliver much pleasure to Nikolai, but everything that was connected with engineering and military affairs attracted his attention. As a child, Nicholas mastered playing the flute and took drawing lessons, and this acquaintance with art allowed him in the future to be considered a connoisseur of opera and ballet.

In July 1817, the wedding of Nikolai Pavlovich with Princess Frederick Louise Charlotte Wilhelmina of Prussia, which after the baptism took the name of Alexander Fedorovna, took place. And since that time, the Grand Duke began to actively participate in the arrangement of the Russian army. He was in charge of engineering units, and educational institutions in companies and battalions were created under his leadership. In 1819, with his assistance, the Main Engineering School and the schools of guards ensigns were opened. Nevertheless, the army did not like him for being too pedantic and picky about trifles.

In 1820, a turning point occurred in the biography of the future Emperor Nicholas I: his older brother Alexander I said that in connection with the refusal of the successor to the throne, Constantine, the right to reign passes to Nicholas. For Nikolai Pavlovich the news was a shock, he was not ready for this. Despite the protests of his younger brother, Alexander I secured this right with a special manifesto.

However, on December 1 (November 19, according to the art. Article) of 1825, Emperor Alexander I suddenly died. Nicholas again tried to abandon the reign and shift the burden of power to Constantine. Only after the publication of the royal manifesto indicating the heir to Nikolai Pavlovich, he had to agree with the will of Alexander I.

The date of the oath before the troops on Senate Square was set on December 26 (December 14, according to Art. It was this date that became decisive in the speech of participants in various secret societies, which went down in history as the Decembrist uprising.

The plan of the revolutionaries was not implemented, the army did not support the rebels, and the demonstration was suppressed. After the trial, five leaders of the uprising were executed, and a large number of participants and sympathizers went into exile. The reign of Nicholas I began very dramatically, but there were no other executions during his reign.

The wedding to the kingdom took place on August 22, 1826 in the Assumption Cathedral of the Kremlin, and in May 1829 the new emperor entered into the rights of the autocrat of the Polish kingdom.

The first steps of Nicholas I in politics were quite liberal: A. S. Pushkin returned from exile, V. A. Zhukovsky became a mentor to the heir; Nikolai’s liberal views are also indicated by the fact that the Ministry of State Property was headed by P. D. Kiselev, not a supporter of serfdom.

Nevertheless, history has shown that the new emperor was an ardent supporter of the monarchy. His main slogan defining state policy was expressed in three postulates: autocracy, Orthodoxy, and nationality. The main thing that Nicholas I sought and achieved by his policy was not to create new and better, but to maintain and improve the existing order.

The emperor’s desire for conservatism and blind observance of the letter of the law led to the development of even greater bureaucracy in the country. In fact, a whole bureaucratic state was created, the ideas of which continue to live up to the present. The most severe censorship was introduced, a unit of the Secret Chancellery was created, headed by Benckendorff, who conducted a political investigation. Very close monitoring of the printing business was established.

During the reign of Nicholas I, some changes affected the existing serfdom. Untreated lands began to be developed in Siberia and the Urals, peasants were sent to their rise regardless of desire. Infrastructure was created on new lands, peasants were supplied with new agricultural equipment.

Under Nicholas I, the first railway was built. The track of Russian roads was wider than European, which contributed to the development of domestic technology.

A financial reform began, which was to introduce a unified system for calculating silver coins and banknotes.

A special place in the tsar’s politics was occupied by concern about the penetration of liberal ideas into Russia. Nicholas I sought to destroy all dissent not only in Russia, but throughout Europe. Without the Russian Tsar, the suppression of all kinds of uprisings and revolutionary riots was not complete. As a result, he received the well-deserved nickname "Gendarme of Europe."

All the years of the reign of Nicholas I are filled with military operations abroad. 1826-1828 - Russian-Persian war, 1828-1829 - Russian-Turkish war, 1830 - suppression of the Polish uprising by Russian troops. In 1833, the Unkar-Isklesia Treaty was signed, which became the highest point of Russian influence on Constantinople. Russia gained the right to block the passage of foreign ships into the Black Sea. True, soon this right was lost as a result of the Second London Convention in 1841. 1849 - Russia is an active participant in the suppression of the uprising in Hungary.

The culmination of the reign of Nicholas I was the Crimean War. It was she who collapsed in the political career of the emperor. He did not expect that Britain and France would come to the aid of Turkey. Austrian politics also aroused concern, the hostility of which forced the Russian Empire to keep an army on the western borders.

As a result, Russia lost influence in the Black Sea, lost the opportunity to build and use military fortresses on the coast.

In 1855, Nicholas I fell ill with the flu, but, despite his malaise, in February went to a military parade without outer clothing ... The emperor died on March 2, 1855.