Maurya Empire is divided into several provinces. The provinces are divided into districts or populations. The village was at the lowest level in the administrative division.
Central Administration of the Mauryan era
King's power and dignity
The center of the Maurya dynasty was the king. He owns all the powers. Rajapadas was hereditary. He was the principal ruler of the state, the chief lawmaker, the chief judge and the chief commander. The Maurya monarchy was never unrestrained dictatorship. They called themselves Debanama Piya or God's favorite.
The Secretary-in-Chief of the Mauryas who helped the King to rule the kingdom was the most important. Megasthenes called them Councillors and Assessors.
Among the secretaries, skilled and experienced persons were appointed as ministers. They advised the king about the principles and foreign policy.
Minister Council :
There was a counselor meeting called by the cabinet. Its place was below the minister.
Apart from this, it would be responsible for managing the administration of revenue, money, justice and administration. Principal of different departments of government work was called to be called Principal. There was a large responsibility of mine, cow and horse. Arthashastra 32 instructors spoke about. Arthashastra has mentioned two employees named Collector and Coordinator. Collector was Chief of the State Revenue Department. He used to keep account of the state's income expenditure. All the works of the Land Revenue and Customs Department are being carried out in his directive. Coordinator was the King's Treasury.
Mauryan Provincial governance
Chandraguptaa split the Maurya Empire into four provinces, namely - Eastern, Northern Road, Avanti and the South Side. Their capital was Pataliputra, Teksasila, Ujjaini and Subarnagiri respectively. During the Ashoka period, another province is associated with Kalinga. Its capital was Tosali. The provinces were called countries. Their rule was on the princes. They were called the Kumar. Their responsibility was to maintain peace and order in their area, collect revenue and keep in touch with the central government.
Local administration of the Maurya Empire
The village was the lowest level of the Maurya system. The responsibility of the village administration was on the rural employees. The top of the gramik was a secret He had 5-6 villages ruled by him. There were some people who were on a secret. The district's top ruler was the Collector. Regarding local discipline, revenue and collection of duty. The proprietary gift of the business was his duty to Goddess.
Urban administration of the Maurya Empire
Details from the Megasthenes descriptions of the city of Patliputra city are known. There was a council of 30 people on a special council in the town of Pataliputra. This association was divided into 6 branches and there were five members in each branch.
Military Department in Maurya era
From the description of megasthenes, the vast force of Chandragupta is known. Megasthenes said that there was a responsibility of the military department of Maury on a council consisting of thirty members. This council was divided into 6 associations with five members.
Spy in Maurya Administration
The Kautilya Arthashastra and the Mahabharata peace path and the surveying of the Maurya era spy system is known. There are two types of Guptar references to economics, namely - Sancara (who travels in various places to gather news), Samasta (who were employed in special places). Gathering all the news of Emperor Empire from the spies. Ashok relied on a reporter named Gupta Thorny.
Jurisdiction of the Maurya Administration
The king was the supreme judge of the state. He performed judicial work with the help of empire scholars and experienced ministers. Arthashastra has two types of trial references. Namely - Dharmasthiya and Kantakasodhana. Justice of the Justice Dharmasthiya was the judge of three princes and three scholars. Kantakasodhana was the judge of the three judges of the judiciary and three awardees. Civil and criminal proceedings were performed in these two judicial courts and it was included in the Central Court.
Revenue system of Maurya Period
The revenue collected from the land owned by the farmer or the land owned by the state was 'Bhaga'. This amount was probably 1/6 of the part. The 'Bali' was an appropriation about which the 1/8 portion was assigned, plus the Faucet, Housekeeping, make a different name.
Ashok added to the Administration
With the reform of erstwhile government system of Chandragupta, Ashoka made it more efficient and human. He had increased the power and rank of older employees like Yuta, Rajuk, and religion was great, the wife created many new masters. In terms of governance and justice, the introduction of Equality and Bar balance policy was introduced.
The weaknesses of the Maurya Administration
According to Dr Romila Thapar, the Maurya regime is very centralized. The bureaucracy continued on the directive of the king. After Ashoka, the governing system was broken due to not being a worthy emperor. Employees show personal loyalty to the king. When a king dies, the loyal servant of the new king was appointed. This resulted in breakdown in the regime. Maurya government employees were appointed from a particular class. They did not act as a link between the king and the people. Many times the snake charmers were appointed as the king's spies.
The nature of the Maurya Administration
According to the Kautilya Arthashastra, Asoka's inscription and megasthenes, the Maurya system was well-planned. According to Smith, Justin, the Maurya system of government was founded on the absolute dictatorial basis. But Romila Thapar said that even though the king was full power, he was not a tyrant. Different scriptures, philosophies, and systems were to follow it. Above all, Prajakalan was the only goal of the Maurya Emperors.
Characteristics of the Maurya regime
(1) The introduction of centralized rule, (2) Even though the King was more powerful, he was very aware of the king's position, (3) the position of a well-organized bureaucracy, (4) the introduction of a well organized municipal system, (5) the absence of the public representative organization, (6) Ashok's new additions.