Lucknow Pact and Importance (1916 AD.)
Lucknow Pact SignedThe Lucknow Pact was an agreement reached between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at the joint session of both the partie held in Lucknow in December 1916 (Lucknow Pact president by Ambica Charan Majumdar). This session brought the moderates and extremists in Congress on commons platform again after nearly a decade, particularly due to efforts of Annie Besant. Through the pact, the two partie agreed to allow overrepresentation to religious minorities in the provincial legislatures. The All Muslim League leaders agreed to joining the Congress movement demanding Indian autonomy. Scholars cite this as an example of a consociational practice in Indian Political. Lucknow Pact date is 29-31 December. The lucknow pact was conceived by a lord chemsford.
Backgrounds Lucknow PactThe British had announced, in order to satisfy the Indian, that they will be considering a series of proposals that would lead to at least half of the members of the Executive Councils being elected and the Legislative Council having a majority of elected members. Both the Congress and the Muslim League supporter these. Both had realized that for further concessions to be gained, greatest cooperation was required.
Lucknow pact Agreements Between by the Congress and LeagueThe Congress agreed to separate electorates for Muslims in electing representatives to the Imperial and Provincial Legislative Council. Although the Muslims were given this right in the Indian Councils Act of 1909 A.d., the Indians National Congress opposed it. The Congress also agreed to the idea of one-third seats for the Muslims in the Councils despite the fact that the Muslim population represented less than a third party. Apart from that, the Congress agreed that no act affecting a community should be passed unless three-quarters of that community members on the council supported it. After the signing of this pact (1816 A.d.) the rivalry between moderates and extremist reduced to some extent.There was a significant change in their relationship.
Demands presented to the British : Lucknow pact main features/PointBoth the parties presented some common demands to the British Government. They demanded:
1. The number of elected seat on the councils should be increased.
2. Motions which were passed by large majorities in the councils should be accepted as binding by the British Government.
3. Minorities in the provinces should be protected seats .
4. All provinces should be granted autonomy.
5. Separating the executive from the judiciary.
6. The number of the members of Central Legislative Councils should be increased to 150.
7. The term of the Legislative Councils should be five years.
8. Members of Legislative Councils should themselves elect their president.
9. Half of the members of Imperial Legislative Councils should be Indian.
10. The salaries of the Secretary of State for Indian Affairs should be paid by the British government and not from Indian fund.
11. Of the two Under Secretarie, one should be Indian.
Main Importance or Significance of the Lucknow PactThe Lucknow Pact is seen as a beacon of hopes of Hindu-Muslim unity. It established cordial relation between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress. Before the pact, both parties were viewed as rivals who opposed each other and worked in their own interested. However, the pact brought a changes in that view. Historian Bipin Chandra commented that the Lucknow Agreement is an important event in the process of establishing Hindi-Muslim unity. By this agreement Congress convinced that despite the religious differences, Hindus and Muslims can meet together for national needs. Ramesh Chandra Majumdar said, Congress leaders signed this agreement and identified the extreme disenchantment. Because the seeds of communalism were thrown into the conditions of the treaty. Dr. Amalesh Tripathi also commented that the Lucknow accord was contrary to the secular policies of the Congress. In the interest of national unity, the secular ideology of India was hit. Mahatma Gandhi was criticizing this principle. Yet, Hindu-Muslim unity established through the Lucknow Convention made the national movement of India dynamic and animated. Dr. Lal Bahadur says, "In regard to communal adjustment, the Congress generally speaking suffered from self- delusion."
The Lucknow Pact also established (Dec 1916) cordial relations between the two prominent group within the Indian National Congress–the extremist faction, known colloquially as the garam dal or "hot faction," led by the Lal-Bal-Pal trio of Lala Lajpath Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal, and the moderate faction, known as the naram dal, led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.