Fourteen Points (14) of Mohammed Ali Jinnah : What was the Fourteen Points of Jinnah ?
The Fourteen Points of Jinnah were proposed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah as a constitutional reforms plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India.In 1928 an All Parties Conference was convened to solve the constitutional problem of India. A committee was set up under Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru.That committee prepared a report which is known as "Nehru Report". This report demanded "Dominion Status" for Indian. Separate electorates were refused and the reservation of seats for the Muslim of Bengal and Punjab was rejected. In this report, not a singles demand of the Muslims was up held. Since Nehru Reports was the last word from Hindus therefore Mr. Jinnah was authorized to draft in concise terms the basis of any future constitution that was to be devised for India Jinnah aim was to get rights for Muslims. He therefore gave his Fourteen points (14). These points covered all of the interests of the Muslims at a heated time and in this Jinnah's stated that it was the "parting of ways" and that he did not want and would not have anything to do with the Indian National Congress (INC) in the future. The League leaders motivated Ali Jinnah to revive the Muslim League and give it direction. As a result, these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslim thinking for the next two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.
Background / Main Causes of Fourteen PointsThe report was given in a meeting of the Councils of the All India Muslim League on 9 March 1929. The Nehru Report was criticised by Muslims leaders Aga Khan and Muhammad Shafi. They considered it's as a death warrant because it recommended joint electoral rolls for Hindus and Muslims.
In 28 March 1929, there was a Muslim All Parties conference was held in Delhi, in which the nationalist Muslims attended and formulated a series of demands on behalf of the Muslims of the Country. In this All Muslims Parties conference, it was made clear that no constitution, by whomsoever proposed or devised, would be acceptable to the Muslims of the country, unless it conformed with those demands. At the same time Jinnah after consulting the Muslims leaders formulated the "Fourteen Points" for safeguarding the rights and interests of the Muslims in any future constitution of the country. Following are these Fourteen points.
The Fourteen Points1. The form of the futures constitution should be federal, with the residuary powers vested in the provinces.
2. A uniform measure of autonomy shall be guaranteed to all provinces.
3. All legislatures in the country and other elected bodies shall be constituted on the definite principle of adequate and effective representations of minorities in every province without reducing the majority in any provinces to a minority or even equality.
4. In the Central Legislatures, Muslim representation shall not be less than one third.
5. Representation of the communal groups shall continueto be by separate electorates provided that it shall be open to any community at any time to abandon its separate electorate in favor of the joint electorates.
6. Any terrestrial redistribution that might at any time be necessary shall not in any way affect the Muslim majority in Punjab, Bengal and NWF Province.
7. Full religious liberty, example- liberty of the belief, worship and observance, propaganda, association and education, shall be guaranteed to all communities.
8. No bills or resolution or any part thereof shall be passed in any legislature or any other elected body if three fourths of the members of any community in that particular body oppose it as being injurious to the interested of that community or in the alternative, such other method is devised as may be found feasible and practicable to deal with such cases.
9. Sindhu should be separated from the Bombay Presidency.
10. Reforms should be introduced in the North West Frontier Province and Balochistan on the same footing as in the other provinces.
11. Provisions should be made in the constitution giving Muslims an adequate share, along with the other Indians, in all the services of the state and in local self-governing bodies having due regard to the requirements of efficiency.
12. The constitution should embody adequate safeguarded for the protection of Muslim culture and for the protection and promotion of Muslim education, language, religion, personal laws and Muslim charitable institutions and for their due shared in the grants-in-aid given by the state and by local self-governing bodies.
13. No cabinet, either central or provincials, should be formed without there being a proportion of at least one-third Muslim ministers.
14. Apart from the consent of the Indian States, the Constitution can not be changed by the Central Legislature.
Reaction Others PartiesAmong the Hindus, Jinnah's 14 points were highly disregarded and were rejected by the Congress Party. Pandit Jawahar lal Nehru referred to them as "Jinnah's ridiculous Fourteen points". This eventually led Jinnah to form Pakistan.
Aftermath :After the fourteen points were publicised, Jinnah's was invited to attend the round table conferences, where he forwarded the Muslims point of view.
ConclusionA comparison of the Nehru Report (1928 AD) with Jinnah’s fourteen points had a political gap between the Muslims and the Hindus in India. Jinnah aim was to get more rights for Muslims. It was a constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in a self-governing India.