Causes of the France Revolution of 1789: Political, Social and Economic
A) Political Causes of the France Revolution :During the eighteen the Century France was the centres of autocratic monarchy. The French Monarchs had unlimited power and they declares themselves as the “Representative of God”.
Louis XIV was the exponential of this view. The French Monarchs engaged themselves in luxurious and extravagances at the royal court of Versailles. They enjoyed unlimited power of France. By the Letter de Catchet, they arrested any person at any time and imprisoned them the cell. They paid no attentions towards their subjects.
Louis XIV (1643-1715) of the Bourbon Dynasty was a powerful monarchy. He was an efficient, hard-working and confidential ruler. He participates in many wars. Louis XIV’s concept of unlimited royal power is revealed by his famous remarkable, “I am the State”.
Hampson said, the aristocratic infiltration produced unsavory results. Lefebvre said, the France monarchy lay midway between the British constitutionalism and continental despotism. Louis XV succeeded Louix XIV He was a ‘butterfly monarch’. His defective foreign policy weakened the economic condition of the France. Louis XV fought the Seven Year War against England which brought nothing for France. France became bankrupt due to over expenditure in war and luxury. He realised it later on. Before his death he cried and said ‘After me the Deluge’.
Out of frustrations he uttered “Oh! What a burden of mines and they have taught me nothing.” Marie Antoinette was the daughter of Marie Theres, the Austrian Empress. She always felt proudly as she was the daughter of Austrain Empress. She always enjoyed luxurious and extravagantly life. She showed seed of the French Revolution. Thus, the autrocratic monarchy, defective Administration, extravagantly expenditure formed the political cause of the French Revolution.
B) Social Causes of the France Revolution :The Social condition of the France during the eighteenth century was very miserable. The then French Society's was divided into three classes— the Clergy(First Estate), Nobles(Second Estate) and Common People(Third Estate).
The Clergy belonged to the First Estate of The France. The Clergy was subdivided into two group i.e. the higher clergy and the lower clergy. The higher clergy occupied the top position in the all society. They managed the churches, monasteries and educational institutions of the France. They did not pay any tax to the monarchy.
They exploited the common people in various way. The higher clergy lived in the midst of scandalou luxury and extravagance. The common people had a strong hatred toward the higher clergy. On the other hand, the lower clergy served the people in true sense of the term and they lived a very miserables life.
The Nobility was regarded as the 2nd Estate in the French Society. They also did not pay any tax to the monarch. The Nobility was also sub-divided into two group - the Court nobility and the provincial nobility. The court nobility lived in pomp and luxury. They did not pay any heed towards the problem of the common people of their areas.
They paid the taxes likes Taille, Tithe and Gable. Inspite of this, the clergies and the nobles employed them in their field in curve. The Bourgeoisie formed the top most groups of the Third Estate. The doctors, lawyers, teachers, businessmen, writers and philosopher's belonged to this classes. They had the wealth and socially status. But the French Monarch, influenced by the clergies and nobility, ranked them as the Third Estate.
C) Economic Causes of the France Revolution :The economic condition of France formed another causes for the outbreak of the French Revolution. The economic condition of France became poor due to the foreign wars of Louis XIV, the seven years War of Louis XV and other expensive war. During the reign period of Louis XVI, the royal treasury became empty as extravagant expenses of his own queen Marie Antoinette.
Then Necker was appointed as the Finance Minister in 1776 Ad. He published a report on the income and expenditure of the State in order to arouse the all people. But he was also dismissed by the king 1781 Ad.
The next person who was appointed by the King as the Finance Minister of France in 1783 Ad. was Callone. He adapted the policy of borrowing in order to meet the expenditures of the royal court. But due to this policy, the national debt of France increased from 300,000,000 to 600,000,000 Franks only in three year.
Then Callone proposed to impose taxes on all the class. But he was dismissed by the king 8th April, 1787 Ad. In this situation, the king at last summoned the State General. The economic instability formed one of the most important caused of the French Revolution.