Protestant religion movement in Ancient India in the sixth century B.C. :
In the 6th century BC, many people lost their devotion, respect and confidence in Brahmanical religion. As a result, in this century a number of protest movements took place against Brahmanical religion and new religions emerged. Among them are Buddhist and Jainism main.
(A) Causes of Protest Movements in Ancient India :
(i) Relgious Cause:
The primary condition of any protesting religion is that of man's disrespect towards the main religion and the reason for this disrespect is deviation from the original creed. In the past nearly a thousand years, the Vedic period has become a formidable external form, with the formless and straightforward beliefs of the Vedic period. Many could not accept Brahmin's supremacy and superiority. The rigors of the caste caused anger amongst the people. But it is inappropriate to search only the source of the protest movement in the fall of Brahmanical religion. Religion can not survive except society. But when religion creates obstacles in the social and economic life of the people, then people do not want to obey its restrictions.
(ii) Social Cause :
There was widespread social and economic reasons behind the protesting movement of the 6th century BC. Brahmanism has not been able to adapt to the changes in the society and economy of India in the last thousand years. During this period, the condition of Kshatriya and Vaishyas of Vedic society was greatly improved. The Aryans had spread in eastern India. Arya-non-serious conflict happened. Many small and big kingdoms were formed. There was a quarrel between them. In this situation the strength of the Kshatriya increased. People accepted their leadership. To note, Mahavira, the proponent of Jainism and the founder of Buddhism, Gautama Buddha were both Kshatriya communities.
(iii) Economic Cause :
Meanwhile, the improvement of agriculture, the development of the industry and the spread of trade and commerce brought some changes in economic life. The land was cultivated with iron grinders. This leads to increased demand for bulls. But because of the sacrifice of many bulls, it was difficult to get bulls for cultivation. The reason for emphasizing on nonviolence in both Buddhist and Jain religions is one, continuing to provide bulls for cultivation. Due to the expansion of trade and commerce, the ban on sea travel and restrictions on interest trading created the inconvenience of traders and merchants. This resulted in business losses. In order to overcome this problem, the merchants and traders in Buddhism and Jainism adopted Buddhism and Jainism. Due to the expansion of trade, both the wealth and prestige of the Vaishyas increased. They were not prepared to believe the Brahmins. Sudars were oppressed and neglected. The poorest of these people were not at all fascinated with Brahmanic religion. Many of them later adopted Buddhism.
(B) Rise and Doctrine of Jainism :
(i) Vardhamana Mahavira :
Although Mahavira was considered the founder of Jain religion, he had 23 preachers or Tirthankar before him. The first Tirthankar was the Rishabhdev. Although none of the first 22 texts were known, Parsvanath was the 23rd pilgrim. In fact, he was the founder of Jainism. But in the 6th century BC, Mahavira made explicit manifestations of Jainism and organized it organically. He left his family at the age of 30 and practiced for 12 years. After that, he achieved 'keibalya' or realization. Since then, he has become known as the 'jin' or the winner and is known as the leader of a religion community named 'Nirgantha'. These are later called Jains.
(ii) Teachings of Mahavira :
The name of the main scripture of Jainism is 'Twelve Organ'. Jainism does not mean only the words of Mahavira. He compiled and assembled the principles of Jainism. But in this, his own thoughts were added. He used the principles of Brahmacharya with four principles of Parsvnath or 'trasham' - nonviolence, truthfulness, abstinence from subject matter and theft of property. These five principles are called together as 'Panchamahabrata'. Leaving aside all kinds of clothes and even closing clothes, Digambar was the ideal of Jainism. Honesty, honesty and honesty are the only ways of salvation of souls. These are known as Triturns. The meaning of the release of the soul is "Nirbhula", that is, escape from birth. No religious rituals are required for this. Knowledge and action is the way to liberate souls. Jainas do not believe in God's existence. They do not mean caste discrimination. Extra importance has been given to non-violence in Jainism. Jainas believe that unconscious matter has a life. Later, the Jainas were divided into two communities - Digambar and Shvetambar.
(iii) Spread Jainism and its Extention :
Mahavir's message was first preached in the Ganges Valley, but later it became popular in West India, parts of northern India and South Mysore. Though the peasant community was not very attracted to Jainism, it was widely accepted among merchants and business communities. Attacks on property in Jainism have been condemned But Jainas understood the land as property, not the money. So there was no problem in accepting Jainism for businessmen.
(C) Rise and Doctrine of Buddhism :
(i) The early life of Gautama Buddha :
Gautama Buddha was contemporary of Mahavira. He was born in the Kshatriya dynasty He realized the vulnerability of worldly happiness by seeing the scene of death, old age and death. But he was able to calm down on seeing a quiet, gentle sannyasin. After leaving the ties of the family, he left home at the age of 29 and was brutally tortured in Urubil, near Gaar. At that time, when his body was broken, a gypsy named Sujata gave him money, he ate it and regained strength in the body. Then he washed his bath in the Nilanjna river and got the Bodhi under the guidance of a peepal tree near present-day Buddha. From then on he became known as 'Buddha'. Buddhadev preached his creed first to Sriramatha in a stirring morgue It is called the cycle of revival. His beloved five disciples joined this event. Then he preached his message in Ayodhya, Bihar and adjacent areas.
(ii) The Buddhist Scriptures :
The main scripture of Buddhism is Tripitak (compiled in Pali). Buddhist scriptures and principles of Buddhism have been recorded in Buddhist scriptures - Binaypitak, Suttapitak and Obhidhrampitak. And there is a duty of Buddhist monks to be worshiped by Benoy Peat. But in it the message of his disciples has been compiled.
(iii) Teachings of Goutama Buddha :
Buddha's thoughts were simple and straight forward. His main objective was to protect man from suffering and distress and show the path of freedom. Attracted the attention of three to four Arya-truths.
(1) Sorrow is inevitable in life;
(2) happiness, Bhabhatrna (that is, the desire for rebirth) and disturbance are the causes of sadness;
(3) Destruction of desire is the only way to be saved from sorrow;
(4) To destroy addiction, follow the right path or path.
The Eightfold Path or Pali Atthangika-magra or Sanskrit Astangika-marga-(1) the good word, (2) the good work, (3) the life of life, (4) the effort, (5) the good thoughts, (6) the good vision, (7) the rightfulness and (8) the grave. Buddha thought that putting the main goal of life. Nirvana means salvation or liberation. That is, the desire to get upset and happiness and sorrow will rise. There is no possibility of release as long as you wish. That is why people are reborn. Being able to get rid of it is always possible to get rid of it. Nirvana does not just mean the end of sadness and addiction. Putting people into a continuous joy and peace world. The path of gaining is not easy. It has to overcome the difficult levels.
Gautama Buddha was skeptical about the existence of God. He did not believe in ceremonial ceremonies and ceremonies. He did not accept the insignificance of Vedas. He did not acknowledge the Brahmin's dominance. But he acknowledged that he had a special place in society. For the release of ordinary people, he emphasized on some other moral disciplines other than the astral path. His approach was moderate or moderate. He felt that he was not desirous of enjoying luxury, and extra pity. He would give advice on nonviolence and truthfulness, Brahmacharya, stealing of property, refraining from libel, and not giving animal sacrifices. These would have been called. The next step was the understanding and wisdom. Finishing up He believed in work.
(iv) Impact of Buddhism :
Simple ideology of Buddha influenced most people. Many people of the lower castes adopted this religion. This religion was preached in the understanding of common people. Later, this religion was divided into two groups - 'Hananjan' and 'Mahayana'. Buddhism was prevalent in India as long as Buddhism was royal. But later it gradually disappeared. At present, the number of Buddhists in India is small. But this religion, largely patronized by Rajshi Ashok and Kanyak, spread to different places outside of India. Currently Buddhism is practiced in countries such as Sri Lanka, China, Brahma, Japan and Korea.