Discussion of the role of the dynasty in the rise and Growth of the Magadha Empire :
In the sixth century BC, the political map of India is mentioned in the list of 16 Mahajanapadas. Among them, the Kosala, Avanti Vatsa and Magadha were relatively strong. In the end of this, Magadha was able to create a huge empire by defeating the remaining kingdoms. Magadha is formed with the small state of Patna and Goa district of present Bihar. But in the course of time, the dominance of Magadha in India from east to north is revealed. The three dynastes played important role behind this imperialism in Magadha. Namely - (i) Haryanka Dynasty, (ii) Sishunaga Dynasty and (iii) Nanda Dynasty.
(i)Haryanka Dynasty :
Bimbisara (558-491 B.C.):
In the middle of the sixth century BC, the King of Haryanka dynasty sat on the throne of Magadha of Bimbisara. He is the founder of the Haryanka dynasty. He was interested in spreading empire. He adopts three ways in the spread of the kingdom. Such as by marital relations and state triumph. He took the SeniyaorShrenika title.
Marital relationship :
Bimbisara Kosala daughter of Mahakoslav and Prasenjit's sister Kausal Devi married Kashi or Varanasi. He married Chelna, the daughter of King Chaitaka of Lichchavi dynasty of Baishali, and increased the power and dignity of Magadha. Apart from Vidyadya, Rajkanya Basavi, the Modra princess of Punjab, married her husband, and strengthened her hand.
State triumph :
He fought against the state of present-day Bhagalpur and Munger district. Anga Raj defeated Brahmadatta in the war and took possession of the kingdom of the kingdom. It is the only state of his reign. According to Dr. Hemchandra Rai - 'The end of the Kalinga conquest of Ashoka, he started the expansion of the state of Magadha in Bimbisara by an attack of 'Anga'.
Ajatasatru (492-460 B.C.):
Bimbisara second wife, Lichchavi Rajkanya, the son of Chelnna sat on the throne. Before that he was the ruler of Champa His title was 'Kunik'. Sasashak, Buddhist religionlambi, after the end of his life, his son was killed by unborn fighters. His first battle is with the princess Raj Pranjeet. Bibbisara's tragedy struck the goddess, when the goddess died, her brother, Prosenjit Kasi recovered. As a result, the fight with the unborn man binds. After a long struggle, Prasenjit defeated and married his daughter, Vajira Kumari. And drink as a coward dowry. After this Lihibihabi declared war on the state. The main reason for this war is to keep the Gangetic coastal area right. In this war, almost 36 nations joined the rivalry against the unborn. After almost 16 years of war, there was a decline of the territories. He built a fort in Patali village on the confluence of Ganges and Shan rivers. He accepted Buddhism. He organized the first Buddhist festival in the royal house.
Udayan or Udayabhadra (461-444 B.C.):
Udayan, after the indigenous people, sat on the throne of Magadha. He shifted the construction of the city of Patliputra at the confluence of Ganges and Shan rivers and transferred the capital of Magadha. After the Udayabhadra, sitting on the throne respectively, the idiots, the mundas and the citizens These were incompetent rulers, their empire did not spread in their time. The progeny is cremated over them. In this situation, the sage Shatnag killed the last king Nagadashak of the Haryanka dynasty and sat on the throne of Magadha in 430 BC. And started the Sishunaga dynasty.
(ii)Sishunaga Dynasty (430-364 B.C.) :
Sishunaga was the ex-prince of Baishali. At first sitting on the throne, he moved from the capital of Magadha to Patliputra to the Rajghat and then permanently to Vaishali. His main contribution is the wars of the war-torn country in the civil war. At this time the state of Motsho and Kosala included Magadha.
Kalashoka or Kakbarna :
After his Sishunaga, his son Kalashoka or Kakbarna sat on throne. During his time, Magadha turned the last force of northern India. He permanently shifted to the capital of Magadha, Pataliputra. During his time, the second Buddhist music was held in Baishali. From the rapture of Banvatta it is known that the zodiac person of Shudra dynasty named Mahapadma Nanda kalashak or Kakbarna and his son-in-law were killed by stabbing them on the throne of Magadha. In this way Nanda Dynasty was started on the throne of Magadha.
(iii)Nanda Dynasty (364-324 B.C.) :
Mahapadam Nanda :
Mahapadam Nanda is the founder of Nanda Dynasty. Dr. Radhakumud Mukhopadhyay is known as Mahapadam Nand 'the first historical emperor of India'. In the Puranas and Greek accounts, he is said to be the only monarch, all-pervading or extinct of all Kshatriya king, and in the fourth parshurama. This proves that he has conquered the kingdom of Magadha in northern India, by destroying the Kalinga, Asmaq, Kashi, Kuru, Sursen and Mithila Lord Harishti.
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After Mahapadam Nanda, his eight sons sit on the throne of Magadha. No information is available about them. Mahapandh Nand and his eight successors are called 'Nawabananda' together. The last king of this dynasty is Dhananni. Greek hero Alexander was contemporary. He was the master of a vast empire and powerful army. Under his military force, Alexander did not have the courage to attack Magadha. The people did not accept him as the lower caste. In the meantime, with the help of Jauti diplomat named Kautilya, Chandra Gupta defeated Maurya Dhanananda and established Maurya dynasty on the throne of Magadha.
Causes of Success of Magadhan Imperialism :
Geographical factors :
The Magdha was located in the upper and lower parts of the Ganges Valley. It was located on the main land route between West and East India. The area was fertile soil. And there was enough rain. The Ganges, the Son and the Champa made this area stand out for the enemy, surrounded by rivers on three sides of Magadha. Rajagiri and Pataliputra were both located strategically in between.
Economic Factors :
No other mahajapapada in natural resources was enriched like Magadha. There was no such peasantry in the mineral resources, especially in the production of iron, as there were so many grains grown. Weapons such as trillers, pots, etc. were made with iron, as well as arms.
Cultural Factors :
Magadhan society had an unorthodox character. It had a good mix of Aryan and non-Aryan peoples. Emergence of Jainism and Buddhism led to a revolution in terms of philosophy and thought. They enhanced liberal traditions. Society was not so much dominated by the Brahmanas and many kings of Magadha were low in origins.