Robert Clive or Lord Clive Plassey Battle, Early life, Biography, Achievement, Bengal And Politics Facts :
On September 25, 1725, Robert was born in the Clive family of Market Drayton, north of Shropshire County, West Midlands, England. His father's name was Richard Clive, and his mother's name was Rebecca Génécal Clive. Robert Clive was the eldest of his father's 13 children (7 daughters and 6 sons). As a child, he was fed up with his cousin. He died of Robert 9 years of age.
During the reign of Emperor Henry IV, Clive's family had a small estate. His father was first admitted to Market Drayton Grammar School. But the school authorities complained to the unruly behavior, and later his father admitted him to Merchant Taylors School in London. Even when expelled for rude behavior, he was admitted to a school in Hertfordshire. He was able to get elementary education from this school. His subsequent education activities were hampered due to lack of scholarship. This time he was studying himself.
Robert's father arranged for a writer's job for him in the East India Company. In this formula, in early 1743, he left for India by ship. But for about nine months in Rio-de-Janeiro port in Brazil for the repair of the ship. During this time he was able to acquire some Portuguese language. Note that in the Indian period, the Portuguese language used to be used by foreign merchants in a small way. In India, his language took special work. After the repair of the ship, they have some ships in the Uttasha Cave for some time. Finally, when their ships reached the coast of Madras, they had no meaning to spend. As a result, he took a loan at a high interest rate from the ship's captain. When he reached India, he could not get enough work in the first place. It is said that at this time he tried to commit suicide twice.
At that time, there was a fort named St. George of the company at Madrasbastam, a small village near present-day Chennai. Arrival in the fort in June 1744 AD. He spent two years working in companies as well as in many types of work.
There was a long standing conflict between the French East India Company and the British East India on the rise of commercial domination in India. By that time, in 1745 British naval forces attacked the French fleet. In this situation, the French Navy appoints additional troops to the French governor General Duplex. Then on September 4, 1746, the French forces under the leadership of La Bourdonnais attacked St. George's fort. The British forces surrendered after a few days of war. The French transferred the captured English to Pondicherry. Clive was captured by the French at this time. The proposal to return the Madras to the English with La Burdwanese compensation. Before the invasion of Madras, Nawab Anwar Uddin of Duplex Corporation of Karnataka promised that the occupied Madras would be handed over to him. After winning the war, if it is time to recite, Nawab sent 10 thousand soldiers against the French army. The French were defeated in the early stages of the war. Finally the French forces were able to win. As a result of the victory over the English and Nawab soldiers, Duplex Indians are dreaming of colonization in India. On 9th November, the army under Duplex entered Madras. At that time, the prisoners of Pondicherry were released in the parole of the Englishmen. In addition, all the English were expelled from Madras. Clive and several English officials could not accept it even though other Englishmen accepted the loyalty of the French. To retaliate against the French, he escaped from Pondicherry and went to the British's fort David. During this time, the master of this fort was Major Stringer Lawrence. Major Lawrence was fascinated by Clive's war effort. Clive was not involved with many of the events that began in 1748-1751, with the conflict between the local Nawab, French and the English forces in southern India and Hyderabad. This time he was mentally somewhat upset. That is why he was sent to Bengal.
Clive returned to Deccan in 1751 AD. When Mohammed Ali, son of Anwar Uddin, took position in Trichinpalli, the ruler of Karnataka, Chand Saheb attacked Trichinpalli. While the French forces and Chand Saheb forces were not able to win Trichinpalli, Mohammad Ali was blocked there. The British army also failed to rescue Mohammed Ali by breaking the siege. In this situation Mohammed Ali, the English governor of Madras, requested Sanders to attack the capital of Arcta in Chand Saheb. If the English could not take advantage of the first attack in Arcot, Major Stringer was responsible for this attack, Clive was responsible for the attack. Clive was able to grab Arctus in a sudden attack. After French and Chand Saheb's forces started to attack Arct, Clive managed to resist this attack for almost two months. In 1952, French commander Jackie-le-surrendered. Almost the same time, Chand Saheb surrendered to the King of Tangor. Later, Mohammad Ali was placed in the throne of Karnataka, killing Chand Saheb. Shortly afterwards, Lawrence Clive was appointed as commissioner in charge. The East India Company honored him with a sword of 700 pounds at that time.
In 1953, he returned to the country and his friend married Neville's younger sister Margaret Meissilin. In July 1755, he returned to Madras as deputy governor. When his ship was disbanded, he lost his gold coins of 33 thousand pounds of value. Shortly after returning, Robert Clive became a lieutenant colonel after promotion.
Nawab Alivardi Khan died on 29 April 1756 in Murshidabad. According to the previous announcement of Alivardi Khan and Sirajdullah, he received the throne. After getting the throne, he started a conspiracy against him, and his aunt Ghaseti Begum started a conspiracy against him. At that time Shawkat Jang was the governor of Purnia. After receiving the throne, Sirajdawalla confiscated all the properties of Ghaseti Begum. Then he made a war on Shawkat Jang. But ignoring the Nawab's orders, the English built the fort in Calcutta, after receiving this news, he stopped the war and returned. In 1756 Sirajuddaula proceeded to subdue the English with a huge force of about 30 thousand soldiers. In this operation, he first captured Kashimbazar Kuthi on May 17th. The Nawab's army blocked the fort of Fort William on June 16th. The English once surrendered in this war. Nabab soldiers with the captives spoil the fort of the fort, but they also make good use of the prisoners. He also got the assurance of security from Hallwell Nawab. But at night, the English soldiers started spree and attacked the guard of the Nawab's army. In this context, the Nawab ordered that the English soldiers be kept in captivity. According to Hallwell, 146 Englishmen were kept in a room with 18 feet length and in a 14-foot 10-inch width. There was only one window in this room. In the morning, 123 people of the house died. This incident, which was hosted by Hallwell, is known as 'Black Hole Murder'.
On 12 July, he returned to Murshidabad after delivering the rule of Calcutta to Sirajdawla Manikchand. Then the English Council sent Admiral Watson and Robert Clive for the recovery of a fleet of Calcutta. This time there was no big army of Nawab in Kolkata. As a result, Clive won almost all the battles in Calcutta. After receiving this news, Sirajdullah attacked Calcutta for the second time in 1757. After a few days of war, both parties agreed on peace talks. The treaty was signed on both sides of the February 4th. It is called 'Alinagar Treaty'. According to the terms of this treaty, the Nawab gave the British all the commercial facilities given by the emperor of Delhi. At the same time, the Nawab allowed the construction of the English fort in Calcutta. At this time the company got the right to use the name of the Nawab as the name of the company.
But in the end the English did not feel the need to admit this agreement. In 1757, the English attacked the France Kuthi in Chandannagar, violating the order of the Nawab. This time Ahmad-Shah-Abdali attacked Delhi and plundered it. Due to this, Siraj-udd-doula did not have the courage to go to war with the British again. As a result, the English easily acquired the French kuthi. The fugitive French took shelter in Murshidabad. Siraj also did correspondence with the British in order to subdue the British. The English started a conspiracy with local abusers to remove Siraj to keep their rule. Jagatshayth, Mir Jafar, Rajballov, Raidurlov, Umichand join this team. They started the conspiracy to make Mir Jafar as a nawab instead of Siraj. At this time Mir Jafar was the Chief General of Bengal. Continued humiliation by Siraj and he went against Siraj. When Clive revealed his conspiracy, Clive pledged his support. In the year 1757, two English contracts were made with The crusher. One of these treatments was real, the other was fake.
After this contract was concluded, Clive announced a war against Siraj on a little pretext. Siraj was ready for this war. On 23rd June, the 'Battle of Plassey' on the banks of the Bhagirathi river. For the Nawab, the army was about 50,000. On the contrary, there were only 3,000 soldiers for the English side. But Mir Jafar, Raidurlov, is in the role of an observer in this war neutral. The French commander Miramdan, Mohanlal and Sinfrey fought for the Nawab. The Nawab army won the battle during the war. At this time, on the advice of Mir Jafar, Nawab ordered a ceasefire. During the war break, when the English attacked suddenly, the Nawab army fled and dispersed. Siraj came back to the capital and distributed money and took the initiative to collect the troops. They took money and hid instead of Nawab help. After leaving the capital, Siraj-udd-dalah left the capital with his wife. Siraj's family was caught near Rajmahal. Then Siraj was murdered on the orders of Mir Jafar's son Miran. Then the English took Mir Jafar to the throne of Bengal.
At the end of the war, the English, led by Clive, accepted Mir Jafar as Nawab of Bengal. The governor of Medenipur, Raja Ramnarayan, ruler of Bihar and Hajir Ali of Purnia, declared the status of Mir Jafar illegal. Mir Jafar is ready to punish him for suspected involvement with this rebellion. After that Clive intervened. After that Mir Jafar took the initiative to punish other rebels, Clive intervened and ended all the conflicts. After that Mir Jafar first paid Tk 1.5 million to the British in different sectors. He gave Clive a prize of 21 million taka. In 1758, Clive was promoted to the post of governor of Bengal.
In the scope of Mir Jafar helplessness, the English continued to demand money on it. After fulfilling those demands of the English, Bardhaman, Nadia, Hughli etc. were responsible for paying the Revenue to the English. Being angry at these behaviors of the English, he established an alliance with the Dutch. The Dutch thought that the Nawab would fight for them. So they did not discuss anything with Mir Jafar, at the end of 1759 AD, attacked the English. In the 'Battle of Bidar', the Dutch were defeated badly by the English forces under Clive. Although the English blamed Mir Jafar for this war, it failed to produce any evidence.
In 1760, Ali Gowar (Emperor Shah II Ali) attacked Patna for the occupation of Bengal and Bihar. Mir jafar was able to resist this attack in collaboration with Clive. As a reward, Mir Jafar gives Clive an annual income of 30 thousand pounds.
In 1760, Clive returned to England. He became the governor of Bengal in his place, Henry Vansittart. By 1765 Clive stayed in England and continued to pursue a political career. In this year, Oxford University DCG degree was awarded to Non-Graduate Clive. In 1764 he received the title of 'Knight of the Bath'.
Already in India, Mir Jafar son was killed. That's why he lost his Miron. Rajkos became empty when paying the English money. At that time, Mir Jafar became almost poor in the sense of the English garbled Vansittart and English officials. At this time, Vansittart made a secret deal with Mir-Qasim, ousting Mir Jafar from the allegations against Mir Jafar, in 1760, Mir-Qasim was placed on the throne. The conflict between the two forces in the conflict between the interests of the English with Mir-Qasim became inevitable. In order to curtail the rights of Mir-Qasim in 1763, the English again put Mir Jafar on the throne. When his death on 17th January of Christ, his son Nazim-ud-Daula got the throne.
During this time, the state of Bengal reached the state of Anarchy. On the one hand, there was a variety of hazards in the public life in the change of the throne of Bengal. On the other hand, the company is financially harmed by vandalism's corruption officials. As a result, Clive II became the governor of Bengal in 1765. Clive arrives in Calcutta on 3rd May. He came to know that on 17th January Mir Jafar died.
After the boxer war, when the Nawab of Ayodhyara and Mughal emperor Shah-Alam were defeated, both kingdoms were under the control of the company. At that time, Lord Clive could have allowed Ayodhya and Delhi to do so. But it is impossible to maintain the authority in a distant land, it is reasonable to believe that Lord Clive belongs to the Bengal, bihar and Orissa regime. So he made a peace with the Nawab of Ayodhya. As a result of this treaty, he paid compensation of Rs 50 lakh to the Nawab company of Ayodhya. Besides, Allahabad and Kara agreed to pay tax in the area. Nabab made an alliance with the company. Because, he thought that if Afghan attacked he would get company help.
On 12 August 1765, Emperor Shah-Alam of Delhi signed a treaty agreement with the company. According to this agreement, the company received tax from Ayodhyara and Allahabad gave a gift to the emperor as a gift. In addition to paying an annual tax of 26 million taka, the company received the power of 'Diwani Collection' and revenue of Orissa in the Bengal and Bihara.
After that, the company exempted Najim-ud-Daula from the authority of revenue collection for the annual scholarship of 53 lakh rupees annually. He handed over police and civil administration to Nawab, but kept the military regime close to the company. In this, the Nawab of Bengal actually became powerless. In this opportunity, the company's people started ransom and torture in the name of collecting rent. This system of clive is called 'Dual governance' in history.
Lord Clive returned to England in February 1767. In 1768, he spent a few days in Paris. Then he returned to England. In 1768, he was elected Fellow of the 'Royal Society'. In 1769 he bought a garden and house. In 1772, the issue of investigation into the affairs of the company in India was raised in Parliament. In India, Clive discusses how much money he makes. But the charges against him against the parliament vote were dismissed. In this year, he invested money in 'Order of the Bath' and was appointed as Lord Lieutenant.
In 1770 Ad. (Bangla 1176) there is a drought in Bangladesh. As a result, food shortages arise in Bangladesh. In history, it is Bangla called the 'Chhiattorer monnontor' and English called 'Great Bengal Famine'. In this period, a large number of people died in Bengal till 1773 Ad. As a result, Parliament became hot again with Clive and company activity. As a result, the issues related to the company's business in the new law came out.