Emperor Ashoka is responsible for the Fall of the Maurya Empire or Fall of the Maurya Empire and Dynasty :
Kautilya founded the Maurya Empire by Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka the death (232 BC) is moved towards the fall. In the 50 years of Ashoka's death, 187 BC, when the Maurya emperor Brihadratha was killed by his chief commander Pushyamitra Shunga, the Maurya Dynasty was overthrown and Shungadynasty was established in the history of Magadha.
Emperor Ashoka's humiliation against the Brahmanas in the fall of the Maurya Empire :
Harprasad Shastri said that due to the hatred of the Brahmin community towards Maurya rule, the Maurya Empire declined. He also said Ashok was Shudra King. He stopped the animal sacrifice and stopped the Brahmins Puja. Ashok said 'Those who were considered to be exorbitant, have been declared their deity gods'. He was appointed by the Dharmamahamatra as an officer and hit by the authority of Brahmanas. Ashoka Dandasamata and Use-equality (in Bengali Byabaharasamata) policy defines the rights of Brahmanas.
Maurya Empire Fall Emperor Ashoka Non violent policy :
Dr. Devdatta Ramkrishna Bhandarkar, Dr. Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay etc. Historians have blamed Ashoka's non-violent policy for the collapse of the Maurya Empire. He accepted the non-violence policy and turned 'Biharayatra' into a 'Dharmayatra' and 'Vereghosha' turns into 'Dhammaghosha'. He made public administrations the Dhamma campaign.
The torture of provincial governing officers :Honorable torture is widely blamed in different provinces for the fall of the Maurya Empire. Dr. Hemchandra Roy Chowdhury said that in the remote provinces Honorable oppression and consequently the rebellion of the progeny in the provinces started from the Bindusara period. During the Bindusara period there was a repression in Thakshashila. During Ashoka's period, Thakshashila took up the repression and Yuvraj was sent to Kunal for the suppression of the rebellion. This story narrated in the book Divyavadana is supported by Ashoka's Kalinga script. In this script, he ordered the Religious Age ( in Bengali Dharmamahamatra) that there was no oppression on the public.
Maurya Empire Economic Depletion :
Dr. Damodar Kosmbi and Romila Thapar emphasized economic reasons for the collapse of the Maurya Empire. It is said that the Maurya Economy collapsed due to the maintenance of the huge force, the wages of a large number of employees, the settlement of new areas, the propagation of Buddhism, the construction of Buddhist monastery and the welfare activities of Ashoka.
Maurya Empire Democratic-rebellion :
Dr. Niharranjan Roy said, Pushyamitra Shunga informed the rebels as Democrat-rebellion. According to him, the people became uncomfortable with the suppression of the Maurya regime, high taxes and acceptance of foreign ideas. Based on Megasthenes description, 1/4 of the crop produced as Land Revenue has been spoken. In 187 BC, army chief Pushyamitra Shunga in front of the army, killed King Brihadratha and established the Shunghanga in Magadha.
Competitive Examination MCQ Questions and Answers SSC, IAS, WBCSC :
(Q) When is the collapse of the Maurya Empire ?Ans:- 187 BC.
(Q) When is the fall of the Maurya dynasty ?Ans:- 187 BC.
(Q) Who is the founder of the Maurya Empire?Ans:- Chandragupta Maurya.
(Q) Who was the last King or emperor of the Maurya dynasty ?Ans:- Brihadratha.
(Q) After the Maurya dynasty, which dynasty occupies the throne on Magadha ?Ans:- Shunga Dynasty.
(Q) Who killed Emperor Brihadratha ?Ans:- Pushyamitra Shunga.
(Q) Who was Brihadratha commander ?Ans:- Pushyamitra Shunga.
(Q) Who launches Bar-balance (in Bengali Dandasamata) and Use-equality (in Bengali Byabaharasamata) ?Ans:- Ashoka.
(Q) Who introduced Dharmamahamatra ?Ans:- Ashoka.
(Q) Who was the first emperor of the Maurya dynasty ?Ans:- Chandragupta.
(Q) What is Vereghosha and Dhammaghosha?Ans:- Asoka's policy was till the Kalinga war, it was called Vereghosha to spread the empire in the battle of the traditional war. And the horrors of the Kalinga war brought a change in Ashoka's mind world. He left the war policy and adopted the religion. It is called Dhammaghosha.
(Q) What is Danda-Samata and Use-equality?Ans:- Use-equality introduced by Emperor Ashoka are all equal to the law and Danda-Samata is equal punishment for equal crimes.